K.: Prosvita, 2000. Pedagogy and psychology of higher education / Otv.
But more important in terms of studying the essence of intuition are philosophical and psychological theories.
Philosophy considers intuition only as a product of human cognitive activity. The study of specific mechanisms for solving cognitive problems is not a problem of philosophy, this problem is primarily psychology. In general, psychology is the link without which it is impossible to create a full-fledged phenomenon of intuition. If the philosophical aspect of intuition is to clarify the method of obtaining, changing, moving knowledge, finding a methodological basis, clarifying social roots, the psychological – in considering the phenomenon of intuition in terms of psychological activity and states of elucidation of the mechanisms of the psyche. This approach is important because it allows you to consider intuition in any particular activity.
In psychology, intuition is seen as a novelty in human psychology, based on knowledge and experience that determines a free lab report writing help online person’s actions without prior analysis, instantly but with inspiration. It helps to find the right solution in the conditions of insufficient information and time, on the basis of oriented search and extrapolation. And such a deficit is always huge where it concerns a living person.
Pedagogical intuition is not an accidental phenomenon, but a natural and important component of the teacher’s creative activity, his pedagogical culture, which acts as a means of operative adjustment of the pedagogical plan. According to the sources of origin, intuition can be sensual (including physiognomic) and intellectual (creative). In general, intellectual intuition is the comprehension of truth by the mind, and sensual intuition is cognitive activity: the result of nonverbal truth in the form of a concept, law, or idea. Here figurative-emotional forms of thinking lead to a „breakthrough“ of nonverbalized images, emotions in the form of words, to the verbal formulation of mental images or to build an associative chain on the most unexpected grounds.
Sensory intuition is a transformed activity (practical) in which knowledge „knowledge arises and exists“, ie plays an auxiliary cannon role, where verbalized, logical concepts are included in figurative-emotional models of thinking, where direct thinking can be nonverbalized and embodied immediately in action. , images are more often visual and are connected with sensory level. Components (terms) of sensory intuition: keen observation, tenacious memory, quick associations, impeccable logic. The main principle of sensory intuition – the principle of the test: the details of the whole. Many experienced educators have a perfect sense of intuition.
The highest manifestation of intuition is intellectual (creative) intuition, ie, according to EN Knyazev, „achieving the state of insight, the completion itself – the transition from a simple structure to a complex, self-development, complication of the original structure.
Creative intuition arises in a person only at the level of the highest manifestation of skill, when there is already deep knowledge of his subject and the necessary experience, when the necessary information is removed from the control of consciousness, displaced by automatism, released into the subconscious. As a result, the field is freed for free construction, for the game of the mind, for intuitive vision.
In addition, the success of an intuitive solution depends on how well the researcher is able to get rid of the patterns, make sure of the unsuitability of previously known ways and at the same time reduce the enthusiasm for the task. The creative initiative goes through several stages in its development.
English scientist G. Wallace identifies 4 stages:
training (coverage of the maximum possible diversity of knowledge elements), maturation (reassessment of knowledge values), enlightenment (breaking into the unknown), verification.
The central point is considered to be intuitive coverage of the expected result. But even the highest level of knowledge, skills and abilities, the development of the necessary personal qualities do not ensure the full formation of pedagogical culture, because it remains unformed pedagogical initiative, which involves:
Ability to predict, the ability to guess, predict all the situations that may arise in the course of teaching; Ability to pedagogical improvisation, non-standard, unexpected approach to the organization of the educational process; Heuristic thinking, fast orientation, keen observation, tenacious memory, impeccable logic; Width of associations, ease of association of separate concepts; The student’s ability to learn, to recognize the image in detail, to collapse mental operations, to analogy; The degree of efficiency of decision-making in a shortage of time and information.
Thus, pedagogical intuition is one of the leading components of pedagogical culture, the most important quality of the teacher, which determines the immediate and error-free choice of method, technique, word, intonation.
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Pedagogical culture: the essence of the concept. Abstract
Qualities of the teacher necessary for formation of pedagogical culture. Psychological and pedagogical knowledge, skills and abilities necessary for the formation of pedagogical culture. Pedagogical experience as one of the components of pedagogical culture
The term „Pedagogical Culture“ has not yet received a generally accepted scientific definition, so, exploring this phenomenon in relation to the professional activities of teachers, we go from general to specific, it is logical to go from identifying cultural parameters of the teacher to the professional identity of their manifestation in teaching. In the scientific literature you can find many, sometimes different, definitions of culture. Back in 1964, American researchers A. Kreber and K. Klakhon collected 257 definitions of culture and more than 100 attempts to define this concept descriptively.
Each of these definitions covers individual, sometimes quite important aspects of culture, sometimes overlooking other, no less important, cases here not only in the insufficient depth of knowledge of the phenomenon of culture, penetration into its essence and nature, but how much in the extreme complexity and versatility of it phenomena. Recently, interest in philosophy as a factor in social development has grown. Researchers are increasingly coming to the conclusion that it is the socio-cultural features of an individual society that leave an imprint on the socio-historical dynamics of the world as a whole. It is in recent years and formed the philosophy of culture – a science aimed at philosophical understanding of culture as a universal and all-encompassing phenomenon.
The problems of the philosophy of culture were first touched upon by the Sophists, who considered, first of all, the antinomy of culture and nature. In the system of modern scientific knowledge, the concept of „culture“ is among the fundamental. In everyday consciousness, culture is often understood as the culture of the individual, referring the term to the evaluative concepts, widely used phrases „culture of mind“, „culture of feelings“, „culture of behavior“, „physical culture“. Culturologists have counted the number of definitions of culture in modern literature – more than 500. This determines the multidimensionality of the phenomenon of culture, the fact that culture expresses the depth of human existence.
Qualities of the teacher necessary for formation of pedagogical culture
We highlight the following qualities of a teacher necessary for the formation of his pedagogical culture:
Value orientations of teachers. It is known that knowledge, skills and abilities without including them in the system of socially significant values of man, his moral relations are able to „crush the spiritual.“ An educated person, who lacks the proper moral foundations, often uses the acquired knowledge for purely pragmatic, personal purposes, a teacher without morality and ideals will never become a carrier of culture. Moral qualities are inseparable from the humanistic orientation of the teacher’s personality, the definition of knowledge of another person, the attitude to man as the greatest value, only if surrounded by responsibility for the future and love for children begins the formation of pedagogical culture. Quite relevant words of NA Berdyaev that „finally loses consciousness of the value of human life, disrespect for the individual reaches amazing proportions … deification of the naked human will, free from any shrine – with this no values can be created. “ Therefore, one of the leading qualities of personality that is necessary for the development of pedagogical culture is the „communicative core of personality“ which implies a person’s readiness for full-fledged interpersonal communication; Pedagogical culture is inseparable from the culture of appearance, language culture, aesthetic culture, diverse interests and spiritual needs of the teacher. In this regard, indicators of the formation of pedagogical culture are the interests and spiritual needs of the teacher; Without the desire for continuous self-improvement, which in turn is determined by awareness of their shortcomings and the ability to correct them, the teacher’s ability to self-control and self-analysis, building a problem of self-education, the teacher can not be characterized as a carrier of high culture.