Among them, the Pechersk Monastery in Kiev, both in size and importance, ranks first.
But in Tiraspol, Polish President Oleksandr Kwasniewski’s words in support of Chisinau’s pro-European orientation and "European enlargement" are interpreted as "a call for the elimination of Moldovan statehood and territorial claims to other states."
Phenomenon of Transnistria – Tiraspol, 2000. – 288 pp. Matveev R. OSCE and Transnistrian settlement // Mainland. Information and analytical portal of the post-Soviet space. 08.01. 2006. Will a new stage of the Transnistrian settlement begin? Moldova in a week. // IA REGNUM http: // www. rambler. ru / 26.01. 2004. Phenomenon of Transnistria – Tiraspol, 2000 .– 288 p. – P. 171-177. Moldova98. Political realities and parliamentary elections. – Chisinau, 1998 .– 170 p.
History of Kievan Rus. Abstract
The history of Kievan Rus usually begins in 862, but its history began much earlier. Ancestors, the Slavs, appeared in Europe in ancient times. There are different opinions among scholars about where the Slavs lived in the prehistoric era
Recently, most of them believe that in that remote era, the Slavs lived in the southwestern part of European Russia south of the Pripyat River. From there, they moved along the rivers in different directions – west, south and east.
At the end of the fourth century BC, the Eastern Slavs, then known as the Antes, fought the Goths under the leadership of their leader, God.
All Slavs at that time were pagans and lived in separate settlements.
Such a village, surrounded by an earthen rampart and wooden walls, was called a city. Kyiv, Novgorod, Smolensk and Chernihiv stood out from the cities.
The Slavs were divided into tribes with different names. At the head of the tribes were princes who decided military and state issues. But for the decision of especially important administrative, legislative and judicial cases the council of all people (so-called "chamber") gathered.
The prince was usually elected by the people, and already in those days there were city-republics with a democratic form of government (Novgorod, Khlinov, Pskov). These cities lost their independence in the XV century, coming under the rule of the Grand Dukes of Moscow. It should be noted that during this period there were free cities in Central and Western Europe, but they did not occupy such a large area as the Slavic city-republics. For example, the Novgorod land was twice the area of France.
The main occupation of the Slavs was agriculture. In addition, they were engaged in fishing, hunting and beekeeping. Surplus production was sold. The Slavs traded not only with each other but also with other peoples. The main trade items were grain, animal skins, wax and honey.
The strip of steppes that lay along the northern shores of the Black Sea has long served as a "corridor" along which peoples from Asia to Europe walked. With these peoples – the Goths, Huns, Avars and others – the Eastern Slavs had to fight for their independent existence. Sometimes they managed to secure their independence, sometimes they found themselves under the rule of other nations.
In the VII century in the southern part of European Russia formed a large Khazar state – a people of Turkic origin. The Khazars subjugated part of the Slavic tribes. But other Slavic tribes disobeyed the Khazars and marched north along the Dnieper, the upper reaches of the Western Dvina, the Volga, and the shores of the Baltic Sea, establishing trading cities everywhere.
From the end of the VII century we can distinguish two Russias – Northern – forest and trade, which in the VIII and IX centuries will be under the influence of the Normans and will remain pagan for a long time, and Southern – steppe, where the influence of Byzantium and Christianity penetrates quite early. Such a division will exist until the time of St. Vladimir.
The ninth century was a time of great activity of the Scandinavians, who carried out attacks on various European countries and even reached Constantinople. Scandinavians penetrated into Russia through the Great Lakes. From there, they sought trade routes east and south along the Volga and Dnieper rivers.
Slavic chronicles report in 862 that the Slavs, who lived in the north around Novgorod, were constantly at war with each other. To put an end to this hostility, they allegedly decided to turn to their northern Scandinavian neighbors, whom they called "Vikings". As it was in reality, it is difficult to establish now. We know from history that the Vikings came to different countries without an invitation. It remains an indisputable fact that Rurik, a famous leader of the Vikings, came to this area with his detachment ("wife"), settled in Novgorod and began to rule over the Slavs.
862 is considered the year of the founding of Kievan Rus. Novgorod was located in the northern part of the waterway (Baltic Sea – Neva River – Lake Ladoga – Lake Ilmen – Dnieper River – Black Sea), which was trade between the Scandinavians and the Byzantine Greeks. At that time it was an important trade route. The expansion of the state to the south along this path began with the closest successors of Rurik.
Prince Oleg, who ruled the country when Rurik’s son, Igor, was a child, took control of Kyiv and moved there the capital of the new Slavic state, or as it was then called, Kievan Rus.
Thus, at the beginning of the tenth century, some Slavic states – Novgorod, Kiev and others – united under the rule of Prince Oleg. The maintenance of both Novgorod and Kyiv made Oleg the full owner of the Dnieper River. Smaller Slavic princes were obliged to obey him, and thus the unification of the Slavic tribes took place. This union enlightened the name of Russia. The center of Russia was the city of Kiev, which in chronicles is called the "mother of Russian cities."
Under Prince Vladimir, Kievan Rus accepted Orthodoxy from the Greeks. This is the name of Greek Christianity in contrast to Western European Christianity. The baptism of Russia took place in 988, and since then the prosperity of the Kiev state began. The memory of Prince Vladimir, whom the Church considers a saint, is preserved in folk songs or epics. In these epics, in a fairy-tale form, the mighty heroes of Prince Vladimir’s wife bravely defend the land from enemies – the inhabitants of the steppes.
The growing importance of Kievan Rus was primarily reflected in the broad kinship of the Kiev princes with the states of Poland, Germany, France, the Czech Republic, Byzantium and the Scandinavian countries. Then closer trade and cultural ties were established with the states of Western Europe and especially with Byzantium, good narrative essay topics which was at that time the most cultural state.
The economy in Kievan Rus was natural, one in which each individual farm met mainly its needs. However, in the cities in the XI century there was already production for the local market. Some essentials, such as dresses and shoes, were available on the market. Luxury items and jewelry were imported from Byzantium and the East. At the same time, Kyiv artisans created their own high art, samples of which have survived to this day. Blacksmithing flourished; gunsmiths produced beautiful swords and other weapons. A special group of the population was formed in the cities – merchants, who were engaged in buying local goods and reselling them to other cities and abroad, and instead brought foreign goods for sale.
Kyiv began to be built up with stone temples and buildings decorated with paintings and mosaics; St. Sophia Cathedral was built. Foreigners who came to Kiev were amazed by its splendor and called it a "rival of Constantinople."
The adoption of Christianity by the Slavs contributed to the spread of enlightenment. Writing originated with the Slavs before the adoption of Christianity. One hundred years before the baptism of Russia, the Slavic missionaries Cyril and Methodius composed the Slavic alphabet (this alphabet is called "Cyrillic") and translated the Greek church books into the Slavic language. Brothers Cyril and Methodius are called "apostles of the Slavs." Both churches – Roman Catholic and Orthodox – consider them saints.
A significant number of books from Bulgaria penetrated into Kievan Rus. They also translated into Slavonic from Greek books, both spiritual and secular. There were original works. At the same time are the first attempts to compile a history of.
The main sources of education in Russia of the described period were monasteries. Among them, the Pechersk Monastery in Kiev, both in size and importance, ranks first. In this monastery, various historical records were transformed into an extensive work – "where did the n land." The monasteries developed icon painting and decorated churches and cathedrals. The best examples of art of Byzantium, the Caucasus and other countries contributed to the formation of culture, which later became the basis of national cultures of the Russian, Ukrainian and Belarusian peoples.
Under the son of St. Vladimir – Yaroslav the Wise – the first compilation of laws "Russian Truth" was compiled. Under him, Kievan Rus became one of the leading European states, and the city of Kiev – one of the most important cultural centers of Europe at that time. Many European monarchs tried to become related to the powerful prince of Kiev. Yaroslav himself was married to the daughter of the Swedish king. Three of his sons were the wives of the daughters of European monarchs, and three daughters of Yaroslav became queens of Norway, Hungary and France.
Yaroslav the Wise’s grandson, Volodymyr Monomakh, did much to strengthen Kyiv’s lands and expand ties with the West. As a true Christian, he was a humane ruler who forbade execution. He successfully defended the land from the attacks of militant nomads.
Shortly after the death of Vladimir Monomakh, a power struggle began between his sons and grandsons. Kievan Rus was divided into separate small principalities and began to decline.
Beginning at the end of the 11th century, a new nomadic people, the Polovtsians, appeared in the steppes along the shores of the Black Sea. Taking advantage of the strife between the Slavic princes, the Polovtsians began to carry out devastating raids on their lands. Fighting them became one of the main concerns of the princes. A wonderful work of literature of that time "A Tale of Igor’s Regiment" tells of the unsuccessful campaign of Prince Igor against the Polovtsians in 1185.
Under the influence of unfavorable conditions in Kievan Rus, in the XII century began the movement of the population to the northeast, in the forest areas of central European Russia.